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Comptes Rendus Physique
Volume 15, n° 4
pages 300-308 (avril 2014)
Doi : 10.1016/j.crhy.2014.03.001
Cosmic rays from the knee to the ankle
Rayons cosmiques du genou à la cheville
 

Mario Edoardo Bertaina
 Department of Physics, University of Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino, Italy 

Tel.: +39 0116707492; fax: +39 0116707497.
Abstract

The shape and composition of the primary spectrum as well as the large-scale anisotropy in the arrival direction of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic radiation. Besides the well-known knee and ankle features, the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at   and a steepening at  . The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till  , where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above   has been measured as well. First indications of anisotropy of the arrival direction in the southern hemisphere have been reported at  .

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Résumé

La forme et la composition du spectre des primaires ainsi que les anisotropies à grande échelle dans la distribution d'arrivée des rayons cosmiques sont des éléments clés pour comprendre l'origine, l'accélération et la propagation du rayonnement galactique. En dehors des particularités spectrales bien connues que sont le genou et la cheville, la mesure du spectre en énergie révèle également, entre ces deux particularités, une déviation claire, bien que moins prononcée, par rapport à une loi de puissance unique : le spectre se durcit jusqu'à   et tombe ensuite à partir de  . La composition en masse, quant à elle, devient plus lourde après le genou, et ce jusqu'à  , valeur à partir de laquelle elle chute rapidement. Un durcissement de la composante légère au-dessus de   a aussi été mesuré. De premières indications d'anisotropies dans les mesures des directions d'arrivée depuis l'hémisphère sud ont été rapportées à  .

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Keywords : Cosmic rays, Energy spectrum, Mass composition, Anisotropy, Knee, Ankle

Mots-clés : Rayons cosmiques, Spectre en énergie, Composition en masse, Anisotropies, Genou, Cheville




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