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Comptes Rendus Chimie
Volume 17, n° 3
pages 293-300 (mars 2014)
Doi : 10.1016/j.crci.2013.12.001
Received : 3 July 2013 ;  accepted : 9 December 2013
Identification, quantification and Chrastil modelling of wheat straw wax extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide

Emily H.K. Sin a, Ray Marriott b, Andrew J. Hunt a, , James H. Clark a
a Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence, Department of Chemistry, The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK 
b The Biocomposites Centre, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL572UW, UK 

Corresponding author.

Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) can be used as a “green” selective solvent for extractions of wheat straw waxes. For the first time, the crude extraction yields of wheat straw waxes and the yields of a single high value group of components (wax esters) using various scCO2 conditions (305.15 to 373.15K and 7.5 to 40MPa) have been modelled using the Chrastil equation (Chrastil, 1982). The model accurately predicts both the crude yield and percentage of valuable wax esters within the extracts enabling maximum extraction efficiency. The key compounds within the waxes (fatty acids, sterols, fatty alcohols, wax esters, β-diketones and alkanes) have been identified and quantified. This study highlighted that, 14,16 hentriacontanedione was extracted at critical temperature and pressure in concentrations of 1000μg.g−1 straw. This molecule could demonstrate significant potential as a natural chelate for metal recovery and also in the formation of super-hydrophobic coatings.

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Keywords : Supercritical fluids, Sustainable chemistry, Extraction, Wax, Wheat straw, Chrastil, Ketones

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