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Comptes Rendus Chimie
Volume 15, n° 7
pages 585-594 (juillet 2012)
Doi : 10.1016/j.crci.2012.04.008
Received : 24 February 2012 ;  accepted : 19 April 2012
De Réaumur à la Première Guerre Mondiale : les étapes de la maîtrise de l’acier, l’essor des aciers spéciaux
From the time of Réaumur to World War One: Successive stages in the mastery of steel-making, emergence of special steels
 

Nicole Chezeau
CRESAT (Centre de recherches sur les économies, les Sociétés, les arts et les techniques), université de Haute-Alsace, 16, rue de la Fonderie, 68093 Mulhouse cedex, France 

Résumé

Après un bref rappel des grandes lignes de l’histoire de la sidérurgie, nous étudierons la période qui s’étend des travaux de Réaumur (1722) à la première guerre mondiale. Ces deux siècles voient le passage d’une production empirique et artisanale de l’acier à une production industrielle. Nous verrons comment les problèmes posés par les procédés de trempe et de cémentation de l’acier ont incité savants et industriels à de fécondes recherches qui conduisent vers 1900 à une véritable science du métal. Ces avancées scientifiques contribuent alors à l’essor prodigieux des aciers alliés industriels. D’abord élaborés empiriquement depuis 1880 pour répondre aux besoins militaires, ces matériaux nouveaux vont, après 1910, permettre de répondre aux besoins des industries électriques et automobiles naissantes.

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Abstract

After a brief survey of the history of steel-making we shall concentrate on the period extending from Réaumur’s work on that topic (1722) until World War one. Those two centuries saw the transition from empirical steel production processes to industrial steel manufacturing. We shall see how problems linked to the quenching and cementation of steel caused both scientists and steel manufacturers to develop efficient research leading to the establishment of an authentic metal science around 1900. These scientific discoveries then contributed to the prodigious development of special steel. Originally produced empirically to fulfill military requirements, these new types of material were to answer the needs of emerging industries, such as electrical engineering, as well as car manufacturing.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Mots clés : Histoire, Métallurgie, Fer, Acier, Cémentation, Trempe, Réaumur

Keywords : History, Metallurgy, Iron, Steel, Cementation, Quenching, Reaumur




© 2012  Published by Elsevier Masson SAS de la part de Académie des sciences.
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