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Comptes Rendus Physique
Volume 19, n° 3
pages 113-133 (mars 2018)
Doi : 10.1016/j.crhy.2017.12.001
Invention, development, and status of the blue light-emitting diode, the enabler of solid-state lighting
L'invention, le développement et l'état de l'art des diodes électroluminescentes à lumière bleue, bases de l'éclairage à l'état solide
 

Daniel Feezell a, , Shuji Nakamura b
a Center for High Technology Materials and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA 
b Materials Department and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA 

Corresponding author.
Abstract

The realization of the first high-brightness blue-light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 1993 sparked a more than twenty-year period of intensive research to improve their efficiency. Solutions to critical challenges related to material quality, light extraction, and internal quantum efficiency have now enabled highly efficient blue LEDs that are used to generate white light in solid-state lighting systems that surpass the efficiency of conventional incandescent lighting by 15–20×. Here we discuss the initial invention of blue LEDs, historical developments that led to their current state-of-the-art performance, and potential future directions for blue LEDs and solid-state lighting.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.
Résumé

La mise au point des premières diodes électroluminescentes (LED) bleues en 1993 a marqué le début de plus de vingt années de recherches intensives dans le but d'améliorer leur efficacité. Les solutions qui ont été apportées à des défis critiques associés à la qualité des matériaux, à l'extraction de la lumière et au rendement quantique interne permettent à présent de disposer de LED bleues hautement performantes utilisables pour générer de la lumière blanche dans des systèmes d'éclairage à l'état solide qui surpassent en efficacité les ampoules à incandescence d'un facteur de 15 à 20×. Nous évoquons ici les prémices de l'invention des LED à lumière bleue, l'histoire des développements qui ont mené à la performance de l'état de l'art actuel, ainsi que de potentielles futures directions de recherche en matière de LED à lumière bleue et d'éclairage à l'état solide.

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Keywords : Light-emitting diodes, Gallium nitride, Solid-state lighting

Mots-clés : Diodes électroluminescentes, Nitrure de gallium, Éclairage à l'état solide




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