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Comptes Rendus Physique
Volume 17, n° 7
pages 718-728 (août 2016)
Doi : 10.1016/j.crhy.2016.07.004
Non-classical radiation emission by a coherent conductor
Rayonnement non classique émis par un conducteur cohérent
 

Jean-Charles Forgues , Gabriel Gasse , Christian Lupien , Bertrand Reulet
 Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500, bd de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada, J1K 2R1 

Abstract

We report experimental evidence that the microwave electromagnetic field generated by a normal conductor, here a tunnel junction placed at ultra-low temperature, can be non-classical. By measuring the quadratures of the electromagnetic field at one or two frequencies in the GHz range, we demonstrate the existence of squeezing as well as entanglement in such radiation. In one experiment, we observe that the variance of one quadrature of the photo-assisted noise generated by the junction goes below its vacuum level. In the second experiment, we demonstrate the existence of correlations between the quadratures taken at two frequencies, which can be stronger than allowed by classical mechanics, proving that the radiation at those two frequencies are entangled.1

  Inspired from previous works/Inspiré de travaux antérieurs [[1], [2]].

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.
Résumé

Nous rapportons des preuves expérimentales de ce que le champ électromagnétique micro-ondes généré par un conducteur normal, une jonction tunnel placée à ultra-basse température, peut avoir un comportement non classique. Nous démontrons l'existence de compression d'état ainsi que d'enchevêtrement dans cette radiation en mesurant les quadratures du champ électromagnétique à une ou deux fréquences de l'ordre du GHz. Dans une expérience, nous observons que la variance d'une quadrature du bruit photo-assisté généré par la jonction descend sous son niveau de vide. Dans une deuxième expérience, nous démontrons l'existence de corrélations entre les quadratures observées à deux fréquences, corrélations qui peuvent être supérieures à ce qui est permis par la mécanique classique, prouvant que la radiation à ces deux fréquences est enchevêtrée.1

  Inspired from previous works/Inspiré de travaux antérieurs [[1], [2]].

The full text of this article is available in PDF format.

Keywords : Quantum microwaves, Entanglement, Squeezing, Quantum noise, Shot noise, Tunnel junction

Mots-clés : Micro-ondes quantiques, Enchevêtrement, Compression d'état, Bruit Quantique, Bruit de grenaille, Jonction tunnel


1  Inspired from previous works/Inspiré de travaux antérieurs [[1], [2]].
2  Reprinted excerpt with permission from J.-C. Forgues, C. Lupien, B. Reulet, Physical Review Letters, 114, 130403, 2015. ©2015 by the American Physical Society.
3  Reprinted excerpt with permission from G. Gasse, C. Lupien, B. Reulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 136601. ©2015 by the American Physical Society.
4  Subscripts have been removed to simplify notation.
5  As well as  , data not shown.


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